Leaf Attachments

Leaf Attachments

Leaf attachment is the process of attaching the individual pages (leaves) of a book together to form one consolidated text block. Leaves are attached along their binding edges with thread or specially formulated internally plasticized polyvinyl acetate adhesives.

Library bindery services offers a wide range of leaf attachment methods to create a durable and readable library bound book:

Double Fan Adhesive Binding

An emulsion copolymer of internally plasticized polyvinyl acetate adhesive (PVA) is used to affix loose leaves of a text block together. 

As the adhesive is applied, the leaves are fanned in each direction to create a thin adhesive coating on each side of each leaf thus “tipping” each page one to the other.

The flexibility and surface finish of the paper, as well the thickness and weight of the text block must be taken into account in deciding whether or not to double fan adhesive bind a volume.

This process can be performed by hand or by using semi-automated machinery (Ultrabind).


This is a method of sewing thin sections of loose leaves, each one to the next in succession, to create a text block.

This process is recommended for heavy or thick text blocks, volumes printed on coated stock papers, or in situations where the grain direction of the paper is perpendicular to the binding margin.

A minimum binding margin of 5/8 inch (15.87 mm) is recommended.

Sewing Through the Fold

Separate signatures are attached, one to another in succession, to create a text block.

Signatures may be sewn through the fold by hand, using one needle and thread, or by machine, using multiple needles and threads.

This method retains the entire original binding margin of the material and produces a book which opens easily and “lays flat” for ease of reading.

New Case Only

When text blocks are sewn through the fold, oversewn or side sewn, and are intact, the original sewing is retained and the text block fitted with a new cover (case).